This paper gives a reflective argument through explaining cochlear implants regarding executive function, sequence memory, and cognitive control. It also gives differences in executive functions between deaf and hard of hearing students (D/HH) and Hearing Students (H) Based on several previous studies discussed in Hintermair’s article (Meristo, Hjelmquist , 2009).
Cognitive skills (ability) of all deaf children with cochlear implants
A deaf child with cochlear implants has the lesser ability to apply consequences of his past actions. It is clear that the cochlear implants regarding executive function are more affected when the executive system get damaged, leading to inability to apply consequences for past actions. The executive function in deaf child controls and coordinates with other cognitive abilities and behaviour of a deaf child (Conway et al., 2010). Language outcome appears to be least partially associated with the various developments of nonverbal visual-spatial memory of the deaf child.
Cognitive control is linked to the ability of the deaf children with cochlear implants. It gives more explanations that any deaf child is entitled to having the required ability to change their thoughts into viable information. Changing what a child perceives to be right is associated with his ability to see or detect the sound of something (Conway et al., 2010).
It is clear that sequential behaviour in deaf child suggests that deaf children have the inability to detect sound as required. Lack of detecting sound makes them unable to perceive the information required. Sound help a person to get the desired signals that help predict what might occur next when information is not available. It is due to the inability of getting the sound that the deaf children have less experience with most common auditory features, which are useful in providing important markers for the passage of time (Conway et al., 2010). Consequently, lack of sound in the early years makes a child has the inability to perceive and organise temporal sequences of non-verbal stimuli.
Educational Implications of Cognitive skills (ability) of all deaf children
Improving sequence memory in a deaf child will help boost or her ability to detect sound and deduce the information from the sound. Sound help student understands what they learn in class and their scores will be improved. When the ability of the children to change their thoughts in more viable information is improved, they will have the ability to understand their classroom task accordingly (Conway et al., 2010). In addition, the behaviour of the deaf child will be improved to better levels.
Differences in Executive Functions between Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students (D/HH) and Hearing Students (H) Based on Several Previous Studies Discussed in Hintermair’s Article
There are differences in executive functions between deaf and hard of hearing student together with hearing students in Hintermair’s article. One of the differences is that D/HH students have greater difficulties in solving problems as compared to the hearing students (Meristo, Hjelmquist , 2009). There was a big difference in how the D/HH student performed in their twenty question task as compared to hearing a student who performed much better (Hintermair, 2013). They can hear what is taught faster than the D/HH student; hence, the higher performance in class.
Generally, the purpose of this study was to provide adequate information to help convince the reader that deaf students have to be given more attention to improving their performance (Hintermair, 2013). Additionally, the study aimed at explaining more about the difficulties endured by the deaf student in class.
Likewise, the participants, in this case, were both the deaf and hard of hearing students (D/HH) and Hearing Students. Their parents who happened to be deaf and normal also participated in the student.
Various materials that were used to achieve the purpose of the study included a (German version of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions) BRIEF-D. Also, questionnaires were administered. They were used to measure communicative competence and behavioural problems (Hintermair, 2013).
Also, there were different results that were obtained in the study and one of the results explained that study deals can be of higher help once they play a role in executive functions. The results obtained revealed that D/HH group of students at general schools had better scores as compared to students in the schools for deaf (Hintermair, 2013). Through regression analysis, the importance of both communicative and executive functions was revealed.
Generally, the information given in this article help plays a big role in bringing more development to D/HH students at both general and deaf schools (Hintermair, 2013). Also, study deal examines what correlation exists between executive functions and behavioural problems of students. The information has contributed to executive functions becoming increasingly important in deaf education.
The purpose of Meristo study was to investigate the role of Executive Functions (EF) in theory-of-mind (ToM) among deaf children (Meristo et al., 2009). However, the role of EF in ToM among deaf adolescents and deaf children was another purpose of the study. In addition, the educational significance of the problem discussed was to make the present study appear more unique. Its uniqueness would send the information to many people and bring changes in deaf education. Investigating the role of EF would bring more changes to deaf students in general schools. On the other side, the findings of the study revealed that it was an advantage for deaf children to have deaf parents. The reason behind this was that the parents were more informed on what is expected; hence, would assist their children with their studies (Meristo et al., 2009). Additionally, there were results interpreted in the context of the study purpose, hypotheses and theoretical framework. Moreover, the theoretical and practical implications of the findings that were discussed showed that training based on the thought-bubble on beliefs was linked with improved false belief understanding. Also, theoretical and practical implications discussed were based on intervention, developmental scaling methods, and micro genetic.
There were some similarities and differences in EF skills among different deaf groups. The similarities in the different deaf groups were the high problem rate experienced by all under executive functions. On the other side, the deaf groups differed regarding scores. Evidently, the deaf students in general schools had better scores as compared to those in deaf schools (Meristo et al., 2009).. Based on the three articles, there were differences between executive functions and ToM theory. The children who demonstrated the use of ToM theory were the ones diagnosed with ADHD while executive functions dealt with how the student’s brains worked.
In the discussion, the results that were obtained revealed more about D/HH group of students. It was evident that their scores in general schools were better as compared to the deaf children in deaf schools. Therefore, more action had to be taken to improve their performance. This paper discusses the sequence memory and cognitive control. It also gives differences in executive functions between deaf and hard of hearing students (D/HH) and Hearing Students (H) Based on several previous studies discussed in Hintermair’s article. Moreover, it was evident that training based on the thought-bubble on beliefs was linked with improved false belief understanding.
Conway, C., Karpicke, J., Anaya, E., Henning, S., Kronenberger, W., Pisoni D. (2010). Nonverbal Cognition in Deaf Children Following Cochlear Implantation: Motor Sequencing Disturbances Mediate Language Delays. PMC. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3304447/ on 23rd March 2016
Hintermair, M. (2013). Executive Functions and Behavioural Problems in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students at General and Special Schools. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 18:3 page 344-358
Meristo,M., Hjelmquist , E. (2009). Executive Functions and Theory-of-Mind. Among Deaf Children: Different Routes to Understanding Other Minds? Journal of Cognition and Development, 10(1–2):67–91
Meristo,M., Hjelmquist , E., & Morgan, Gary. (2009). How to Access to Language Affects Theory of Mind in Deaf Children. Chapter 3 pg 45-58