The shift of manufacturing process which mostly leads to the change of power source from man to the use of machines is referred to as the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution led to the creation of the modern society it created the today’s modern economic system and the middle class. However, the industrial revolution led to a huge gap which was created between the industrialised countries and those which had not well industrialised even though it tied all the countries together (McKay et al 200). Evidently, industrialisation began in 1700s Britain. Moreover, before the industrial revolution took place people used to produce goods example, the textiles through the use of their own hands. It was after the revolution began that machines began doing the entire job which was being done by humans. Again, it did not take long before such industrialisation spreading to other countries which included; North America and Europe. This paper discusses reason as to why Britain industrialised first.
It is true that Greet Britain was the first country to industrialise as it had abundant of resources which acted as an important factor of industrialisation. Britain was leading I matter of economic, agriculture and political realities which played a great role in its industrialisation (McKay et al 210). Due to the availability of a stronger agricultural base as well as good political system, Britain became the firth country to industrialise, this leading to the creation of the modern economic system in the current world. The abundant resource present in Britain played a key role in the country’s industrialisation. Some of the resources present in the country include; waterways, waterpower, iron core and coal. The country made use of rivers for inland transportation and waterpower as the source of power. Instead of suing steam engine, coal was used instead as it had many advantages. Again, buildings in Britain were made with iron ore while on the other side more tools and machines were also made. However, other countries like the United States, China and France had similar advantages like those of Britain, but unfortunately did not industrialise the same time like Britain. Such countries received industrialisation after it had spread in Britain (McKay et al 230). Due to such a reason, one will be sure to declare that natural resources were not a major determining factor of industrialisation. Other factor like; overseas trade, formation of many corporations and invention across the whole of Britain were key economic factors of industrial revolution.
Britain had made a great use of such economic factors on time, thus becoming the first country to industrialise. It was through the strong overseas empires which were key economic hold of Britain which enable industrialisation to take place in the country before any other pace in the world. The strong ships owned by Britain allowed the British sailors to sail across the globe and trade their products. It was through such an established overseas trade which made Britain to earn huge amount of money leading to the creation of a string economic system (McKay et al 250). Again, Britain had made wealth colonies in Caribbean and Central America which earned a lot of money from cash crops like; sugar, tobacco and cotton. All these colonies made Britain proud due to the higher level of wealth attained creating more space to create more goods. It was a collection of the overseas trade and the corporation which were created that led to the high impact of industrialisation in the country. A company that wanted to make ass production of goods was required to pay large amount of money, thus corporations had to be created to make working much easier. One of the main reason as to why corporations had to be created was to ensure that many stockholders had the opportunity of securing bigger profits from the business altogether. Again, due to the creation of many companies in the country there was need to build many railroads which could act as a means of transportation of goods from one place to another. Consequently, the railroads facilitated faster transportation of products from industries to different markets as the number of the railroads corresponded the success of the businesses in Britain. However, there was no enough money which could be used in maintaining such a large number of railroads. Therefore, many entrepreneurs decided to sell their stocks leading to higher profits in the business. At such times, the companies managed to buy expensive equipment’s for the businesses (McKay et al 300). The location of the businesses was made strategic implying that it was near a railroad for easier transportation of many products. Again, corporations had to be built in urban cities as lesser amount of money could be used in the transportation of goods. Likewise, due to the high population in the cities, the corporations secured cheaper labours. Additionally, through reduction of prices of their goods, the corporation managed to save enough for its production processes. One would be certain that such booming businesses in the country led to its early industrialisation.
The various inventions in the textile, transportation and power source industries contributed to Britain’s early industrialisation. There were various textile invention like; spinning mule which led in faster production of many products within the shortest time possible. Another invention named; Eli Whitney’s invention made it much easier to remove seeds from cotton, thus contributing to more clean cotton (McKay et al 314). Under such situations, Britain managed to buy more cotton and produce textile products at a relatively cheaper cost. On the other side, products that were produced were faster transported from one region to another as the invention of stem energy made this possible.
Consequently, the increased population in the country contributed to the Agricultural revolution which also helped Britain to be the first country to industrialise. It was back in 1700, that wealthy owners began to purchase land in the village for agricultural purposes. It was during such an agricultural ties that seed drill was invented which helped many farmers to plant seed at the right place with the right depth. Again, crop rotation was used to help retain nutrients in the agricultural lands (McKay et al 345). Under the use of scientific methods, many farmers managed to produce many agricultural products a factor which led to increased demand of both goods and food. However, larger land owners forced other farers to be tenants of their own land or else move to cities and abandon their lands. Despite the many wars that Britain fought, none of them took place in their land implying that they managed to save their money, time and land for wars.
In conclusion, it is true that Britain was the first country to industrialise. This is because; the country had strong agricultural base and many inventions in the textile industry among other industries. Again, the country had a strong political base which ensures that despite all the wars fought by Britain none took place in the country, thus money and time was saved. This paper has extensively explained various reasons as to why Britain industrialised first.
McKay, John P., Clare Haru Crowston, Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks, and Joe Perry. Sources for Westeren Society, Volume 2: From the Age of Exploration to the Present, 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2013.