How is the recitation of Chunhyang-ga like the recitation of the Epic of Pabuji? How are they different? In your comparison, consider the context, meaning, and performance style of each
Similarities and differences in the recitation of Chunhyang-ga and Epic of Pabuji
The recitation of Chunhyang-ga is similar to the recitation of Epic of Pabuji in several ways. First, both are recited while standing such that the reciter chants while standing in front of their audience. The recitation is often accompanied by the sound of a drum. The other similarity is that these two forms of traditional songs are done in front of a large audience. In most cases, the audience is usually seated and is keen on listening to the recitation from the author. In order to express their tales, the recitation of these songs is done with some simple gestures. The singer often changes the tone of the voice to express his message. While showing their excitement to the recitation of these two songs, the spectators and the drummer add some exclamations. The other similarity in the performance of these two songs is seen in shifting between the narrative and the singing.
For Chunhyang-ga, the singer begins with the narrative, then alternates the narratives and the singing frequently. In addition, Chunhyang-ga chants apply various methods in relation to the musical tone. The chants can sometimes be a poem, song, or the ritual prayer. The narrative and the singing of the Chunhyang-ga are respectively prose and verse throughout the performance. The acts of tension release or objective description is meaningful in providing the relationship between the narrative and the singing voice. On a similar note, the reciting of Epic of Pabuji alternates between the narrative and the singing voices. However, the alternation between the narrative and the song does not occur very often. The narrative of Epic of Pabuji is a prose and the songs are the verses.
In Chunhyang-ga, the narrative and the singing is nearly done in a similar proportions. On the other hand, the singing voice is mainly used to deliver the message for Epic of Pabuji. Therefore, the genre of Epic of Pabuji is mainly based on the song. Exclamations are mostly used in the beginning of Epic of Pabuji narrative to tell the audience that the story has begun. This makes the audience more attentive from the very first time the presenter begins his presentation. Unlike the Epic of Pabuji that is more rigid, Chunhyang-ga is more flexible and allows the audience to add his own input into the presentation. In addition, the Epic of Pabuji tends to involve fewer gestures than the Chunhyang-ga.
The themes in Chunhyang-ga mostly express the ideals and the living conditions of the local community. Specifically, the narration of Chunhyang-ga represents the virtue of the Koreans. These narratives are interesting in that they show the pantisocracy of the Koreans in relation to their conditions of living. In addition, the narration of Chunhyang-ga represents the heroic epic of the ancient Koreans. On the other hand, the narration of Epic of Pabuji is mostly full of integrity issues.
Part Two (USES OF MUSIC IN MOVIES)
2a. Diagetic and Non-diagetic
Both diagetic and non-diagetic music are used in most movies. Diagetic music involves the use of music in a film when the source is implied or visible in the context of the film. In simple terms, the source of diagetic sound is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to the present actin of the film. It can take the form of the sounds originating from the screen or the footsteps, the music that comes from the sound system and the actors speaking to each other. On the other hand, non-diagetic sound is that sound that originates from an outside source in relation to the story. Therefore, it is a sound that has been added to support the story such as the sound effects and the background music. The movie Shawshank Redemption is characterized by diagetic and non-diagetic musical elements.
Diagetic music can be heard when the prisoners are beaten by the warders. It is evident that the sound of the beating corresponds with the punches on the prisoners. Such music is played on a higher pitch to exemplify how hard the punch is. Non-diagetic music can be heard during the trial of Andy Dufresne (the main actor), especially when the judge is pronouncing the life sentence. In this context, a classical music is played in low tones to enable the audience grasp whatever is being said by the judge.
This is an artistic hint that helps to give the audience what is to come in future. This music is played in the background when the actor explains the horrific things that are about to happen to him in future. The element of foreshadowing is seen when the main actor Andy Dufresne points out some of the things that are about to happen to him. The track, His Judgment Cometh is played for around two minutes to allow the actor illustrate what lies ahead of him. This music is played in low voices in a classical style.
2c. Emotional build up
These are songs that are used within a movie to help stir emotional reactions from the audience. Such songs play with the mood of the audience to stir emotions in particular scenes. The scene can be inspiring, uplifting, sentimental, or even romantic. Such a song is heard when Andy Dufresne is having romance with his wife shortly before she dies. This song helps to portray emotions in romantic scenes.
2d. Establishing locale
Songs can be used in movies to establish a locale by providing a reference to a particular event. In such a case, the music can be used to establish the scene of the environment where the action is taking place. In the movie The Shawshank Redemption, a new music is played to introduce the prison environment where the actor has been imprisoned for life. The music is played in low and traditional style to help convey the message that the actor has changed his environment from the freedom he used to have to a more confined prison environment.
2e. Creating the mood
The music in the movie can also be used to create the mood by maneuvering the tempo and the rhythm. The mood can be used in the emotional lows and highs of the movie. The music played in the beginning of the court helps to set the mood of the court. The music is played in a pop style and it helps to set the anxiety mood of the court.
2f. Sheer entertainment
The music used within the movie can also just be used for sheer entertainment. Such music tends to provide entertainment of their audience. Entertainment music can be played to change to tone of the movie. The music played in the scene where the prisoners are eating is meant for sheer entertainment. The music is played in a pop style and it helps to entertain the audience as the prisoners take their meals.
3a. Spiritual rituals are traditional performances that have some religious connotations. Such rituals are always performed in a sequestered place and they involve the use of gestures during performances. The spiritual rituals are often performed in public places where there are several persons.
Anti-structural rituals are ceremonies or festivals that often takes place in the form of entertainment (Arnold & Kramer 235). They are meant to validate the religious rituals and social institutions in enhancing the cultural beliefs of a particular community. In addition, anti-structural rituals are meant to uphold the social order and anarchy within a particular society. In most cases, anti-structural rituals involve the participation of a very large group of persons and are thus used to unite a large generation of people. In some instances, the anti-structural rituals can be in the form of festivals to honor god and stir hope among the people.
3b. There are some forms of music promoting structure in the society. One of the examples of music promoting structure in the society is the Luhya tribe dance in Kenya during circumcision. During the circumcision events, the people are involved in some particular form of dance to mark the cultural ceremony.
3c. One of the examples of music promoting anti-structure in the society is the Zulu festival and dance. This music is often performed in front of a very large audience. This music is played to portray the South African peace and freedom after lengthy British rule. Whenever the music is being played, the members often exhibit deep feeling of belonging to that particular community.