Context of the problem
Geographical location of Bambui
According to Aggarwal (2014), Bambui is situated in the Tuba Subdivision in North-west of Cameroon and is approximately 12 kilometers Northeast of Bamenda town, Mezam Division. Its latitudes are approximately 5 degrees North and 6 degrees north, while the longitudes are roughly 10 degrees east and 10 degrees west and the region lies within the subequatorial climate that is well known for both of its seasons, the dry and wet season. Moreover, it is situated on the flanks of the volcanic mountains in Bamenda along the ranges of Oku and Bamboutos and it is a region very rich in water resources. Appendix A shows a map of the geographical location of Bambui.
Local culture of the people of Bambui
The people of Bambui are a bunch of hospitable and friendly people who offer warm receptions to any visitor in the region whose basic language is Pidgin English as their children are taught in English. Moreover, these people have contact with many more people of different languages, including Bambili, Babanki Mannkon, AWing and Bafut among many others with favorable attitudes towards accent (Bonnis, 1995). The population is generally assumed to be poor since the inhabitants practice subsistence farming, but most important is that great academic warriors also inhabit the region following its location in an area that has many institutions of higher education. Most of the people associate themselves with Christianity receiving such teachings from scripture leaders who are so enthusiastic even though they lack linguistics knowledge for purposes of translation (Boscarino, 2009).
Bambui has continued to register a gross increase in population and for this reason; a problem in housing has come up and hence quick innovation is required to sustain the entire community. This particular problem has led to construction of substandard houses without council approval leading to narrowed streets and dumping of waste everywhere, which leads to pollution of the environment (Cline-Cole, 1997). The encroaching of houses towards the roads poses a potential risk to the residents who live in large numbers in a single room since they love living in extended families. As the population increases, more and more land is cleared for settlement while further acres of land are cleared for the establishment of other social facilities, including the market whose construction was authorized by the king. The construction of roads also requires that large areas of land to be cleared, a situation termed as deforestation and if the trees in the forest are not replanted, then more unpredictable weather and climate changes may be recorded (Darryl, Maekawa, & Niimura, 2003).
Bamboo is a township in Cameroon which is just emerging and so far has a population of about 50,000 people, elevated at a height of 1350 meters above the sea level. It is a region that consists of both modern and indigenous Africans in Cameroon who are extremely active in the agricultural sector (Elbakidze et al, 2013).
Requirements and functional analysis as provided by EWB
Despite the fact that traditionally the weather patterns of Bambui was predictable and kind of stable, problems associated with changes in weather patterns of late have been quite a big issue. As of now, it is difficult to predict whether the dry and wet seasons will come and go, with high temperatures going beyond those of Douala city and the cold temperatures at night getting pretty lower than in the past (Fujisawa, 2004). The unpredictable pattern of weather of late has had gross significant effects on the Bambui community since it entirely depends on agriculture. The recorded adverse weather conditions have really had a great impact on the surrounding vegetation, including contraction of diseases by the local plant species and the spread of weeds at large. Traditional methods of farming practiced by the community, including slashing and burning have also worsened the situation (Yoshimura, & Acar, 2004). Moreover, there has been generally an elevated level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as a result of the poor farming practices which leads to deterioration of the natural environment of Bambui (García-oliva & Masera, 2004).
The community at some point came to realize the danger posed by the farming practices and consequently devised methods of correcting themselves. Such methods included holding seminars and workshops to enlighten one another on problems related to such poor farming practices. New and affordable methods of farming were devised which were environmentally friendly and also had the potential of proving income to the locals (Ke & Pan, 2011). However, there are still other potential projects that can be performed to improve the situation and these methods include forestation and replanting which can help in clearing the threats of unpredictable weather changes (Liu, Lu, & Yin, 2010). This idea will also encourage job creation and motivate the community towards thinking of other such methods that reduce harm to the environment. The idea of burning and slashing areas of land, including the forest for farming should be abolished and replaced with better methods of acquiring land for agriculture (Khatun, 2013).
The community leaders of Bambui have come up with educational programs on better farming methods and hopefully this will help control the effects of poor farming methods and forest misuse already happening in the region (Shin, Miah & Lee, 2008). In order to preserve a better environment for the future generation, it is paramount that an environmental education manager be chosen to keep even the young generation at school aware of the importance of practicing good farming habits. By so doing, the future generation will find it easy to get absorbed into the environment, conservation techniques and perhaps the problem of weather and climate uncertainty would be finally solved (Liu, Lu, & Yin, 2010). Appendix B shows pictures of some activities practiced in Bambui.
Moreover, the community around Bambui region has found it healthy to start several projects that aim to improve their disposal of waste considering the fact that they live in a congested area and therefore if proper disposal of waste is not done, the health issues may arise. The leaders also noted that it is important to control urbanization through planning and the way housing structures are built so as to avoid making the condition even worse than it currently is (Sabitova, 2012).
Apparently, the Bambui market is the largest market around the region and offers marketing services to the individuals at large who make their businesses of selling shoes, clothes and raw foods. There are also other smalls stalls and restaurants which add into the food supply chain by provision of readymade food into the market, especially during market days and sometimes serving those just adjacent to the market. However, recently a new practice cropped up whereby the residents and business people just started putting up new structures any how without any supervision from the council and the market started growing really fast (Bonnis, 1995).
When the issue of new stalls coming up in the market areas, attention was very fast drawn to the king, generally referred to as the Fon, by the elders who had noted the new undesirable behavior in good time (Murti & Boydell, 2008). The king is responsible for allowing the allocation of land for any type of building and his consent must be sought if the proper building structures have to be brought up and also to ensure order. The actions that followed after the king’s go-ahead order are that more area of land was cleared for construction of new market structures and a public toilet to avoid improper disposal of human waste that may lead to sprouting of new diseases (García-oliva & Masera, 2004).
Unfortunately, there arose complaints from the business people that the newly constructed stalls had slabs for displaying their food staffs which were too high. Moreover, the complaints extended to arguing that the marketplace was to the interior and the business people could not target most of their customers with ease for proper and timely delivery of goods and services (Murti & Boydell, 2008). Generally, these complaints have forced most of the stalls that were constructed entirely unused and lying idle and most people went back to the construction of small stalls as they had initially started. The implication this whole turn of events is that more and more areas of land will keep on being destroyed owing to market construction and the problem of climate unpredictability will continue to worsen (Aggarwal, 2014).
Forestry management and greenhouse
An alternative in the area of forestry management in Bambui may require projects based on forestation which will incorporate coming up with a nursery and also establishing campaigns for community initiated planting of trees (Yoshimura, & Acar, 2004). This will help greatly in addressing issues that are brought about by poor farming methods that include burning of vegetation and slashing. The program will also touch on issues related to unsustainable methods of grazing and practices such as deforestation and their effects. The benefits of designing this tree planting project in Bambui are countless in terms of addressing the environmental and ecological matters that arose just recently, especially within Tubar watershed (Maracchi, Sirotenko & Bindi, 2005).
This design will be a potential source of employment to the locals since the nursery and greenhouse will engage the residents in cultivation of local flora that generates cash as foreign exchange. Moreover, the project design is simple and will involve almost all members of the community following its financial attraction, less complexity and applicability (Murti & Boydell, 2008).
Well, the actual installation of a greenhouse may not be as cheap as it appears on the design; it is quite expensive (Ravindranath et al, 2003)
Project design on farming practices
Alternatively, a project can be designed such that seminars and workshops which are organized with the ultimate goal of ensuring that the community gets awareness of the advantages of practicing agro-forestry and sustainable pastoral farming. In this project design, education will be offered to the locals concerning the deadly effects of poor farming practices such as slash , cutting and burning down of trees and grazing in vulnerable regions such as in forests. It will of course be even more beneficial if this project is designed to reach both the adults and the children, as opposed to addressing only the adults, since by so doing the future generation is also taken care of in terms of planning ahead (Sabitova, 2012).
This project design is cheap since it only entails communicating to both the adults and children of the venue of the seminars and workshops and facilitating the speakers, of which some may even be volunteers (Salam & Noguchi, 2005).
Despite the fact that change is imperative and unavoidable, some people are unwilling to change from their old behaviors. It might be quite difficult to convince especially the old generation to shift from their traditional methods of farming and buy into your new ideas for they will try to prove to you that the old ways are better (Shin, Miah & Lee, 2008).
Designing a weather monitoring firm
Alternatively, another option is to design a research and meteorological center, which will be useful to the community by offering information regarding weather and climate change. Initially, this paper mentioned the unpredictable weather patterns of Bambui; hence if a meteorological center is established in the region, perhaps it would help the residents prepare in advance for any climate changes (Sakurai et al, 2004). In this weather forecasting centre, any changes in climate or weather patterns will be studied for better preparations to be done, since the Bambui community is one that embraces agriculture. The research center in this design should however be simple and requiring less investment in terms of cost of installation and operation, since a more expensive facility will be faced off almost immediately. Lots of considerations will therefore be made to ensure that only the information that is beneficial to the community is issued and ways of ensuring that it reaches the community will be properly outlined (Salam & Noguchi, 2005).
It will ensure that the residents get the right information in order to prepare appropriately for any change in the climate and to be able to choose the types of crops to plant during different seasons (Shin, Miah & Lee, 2008).
This option is most probably the most expensive design to install since most of the meteorological research instruments are only obtained at very high prices. The installation of the facility also requires lots of money and just in case any instruments are faulty, unreliable results are obtained and this may lead to misleading the entire community on seasonal expectations (Urbel-Piirsalu & Bäcklund, 2009).
Design on house construction
In this design, proper long lasting housing structures can be built that provide safety, ventilation and insulation since it is not quite evident how long the weather and climate unpredictability may continue. The structures designed in this project, however should have the capacity to withstand the changes in climate and other elements in the region. Moreover, the construction should take advantage of locally available materials and its expense in terms of cost of installation should be as minimal as possible (Salam & Noguchi, 2005). When such structures are in place, it is evident that different types of people will benefit from the project such as students and the extended families. This is supported by the fact that initially we identified Bambui as an academically oriented township with lots of educational facilities and institutions of higher learning. While developing this project, therefore, specific considerations should be given to the increasing number of students and the large extended families that form the Bambui community. The project should also look into issues of sanitation, water runoff and other aspects as found within the surrounding environs of the Bambui neighborhood (Maracchi, Sirotenko & Bindi, 2005).
The new housing system designed will consider water harvesting which will help in the preservation of water for future use during the unpredictable seasons (Bonnis, 1995).
Depending on the quality of housing structures, the design may be quite expensive to the villagers, although the long term effects are beneficial (Salam & Noguchi, 2005).
Design of a realistic map of Bambui locality
This project design may involve coming up with protocols of mapping in the entire region of Bambui community in Cameroon. This is considering the fact that currently, Bambui is having gross problems in establishing an exact map of the community and the neighboring villages of Tubah area (Murti & Boydell, 2008). If the project coordinates a proper map construction of the entire region of Bambui, it will make it easy for the community planners to plan on where to put new structures based on the fact that the entire area is under urbanization. The planners in this case will at least have an idea on the size of the existing village and find out the spaces available in the locality for setting up of any new structures or infrastructure such as roads and new market centers (Bonnis, 1995).
Construction of a drainage system
The location of Bambui region is already poorly designed with residential areas and streets almost considering with one another. A project designing that tends to handle drainage issues removing unwanted waters and waste from the locality to designated areas would therefore be greatly appreciated in the area that was originally poorly designed. It goes without saying that if water remains stagnant in an area for long without being drained it becomes a breeding zone for mosquitoes and other insects (García-oliva & Masera, 2004). This will definitely imply that the community will consequently live with fear of diseases that are water borne such as malaria, diarrhea and bilharzias. Since in the layout of the construction of existing structures in Bambui lacks the considerations of any drainage systems, such a project design will be suitable in improving the lifestyle of residents, both in the rural and urban centers in the entire village (Maracchi, Sirotenko & Bindi, 2005).
Project design on the construction of market infrastructure and facilities
According to Cline-Cole (1997), it is possible to come up with a new plan of a market place in Bambui with great improvements from the original market layout that lacked many update structures. At least the project design should be able to take care of the initial problems currently being experienced by the locals. Such issues are those of the centralization of the market institution and the issue of construction of high slabs for buying and selling of food stuffs which raised so many complaints (Bonnis, 1995). The project design should be able to handle such problems and curb the problem of the sprawling of new structures in the market areas which happened as a result of poor planning in the construction of market places. The project may also consider performing repairs and upgrading the existing structures since the cost will be factored in when the design is presented to the elders of the community or to the Fon who is their king (García-Oliva & Maseru, 2004).
Aggarwal, A. (2014). How sustainable are forestry, clean development mechanism projects? –A review of the selected projects from India. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 19(1), 73-91.
Bonnis, G. (1995). Farmers, forestry and the environment. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.the OECD Observer, (196), 38.
Cline-Cole, R. (1997). Promoting (anti-)social forestry in northern nigeria? Review of African Political Economy, 24(74), 515-536.
Darryl R.J. Macer, Bhardwaj, M., Maekawa, F., & Niimura, Y. (2003). Ethical opportunities in global agriculture, fisheries, and forestry: The role for FAO. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16(5), 479-503.
Elbakidze, M., Andersson, K., Angelstam, P., Armstrong, G. W., Axelsson, R., Doyon, F., . . . Pautov, Y. (2013). Sustained yield forestry in sweden and russia: How does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy? Ambio, 42(2), 160-73.
Fujisawa, H. (2004). The forest planning system in relation to the forest resource and forestry policies. Journal of Forest Research, 9(1), 1-5.
García-oliva, F., & Masera, O. R. (2004). Assessment and measurement issues related to soil carbon sequestration in land-use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the kyoto protocol. Climatic Change, 65(3), 347-364. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:CLIM.0000038211.84327.d9
Ke, S., & Pan, C. (2011). Forestry actions to tackle climate change and its impact on carbon emission and employment creation in china. Management & Engineering, (3), 91-100.
Khatun, K. (2013). Integrating national forestry initiatives in india with international climate change policy. Climate Policy, 13(3), 384-402.
Liu, C., Lu, J., & Yin, R. (2010). An estimation of the effects of china’s priority forestry programs on farmers’ income. Environmental Management, 45(3), 526-40.
Maracchi, G., Sirotenko, O., & Bindi, M. (2005). Impacts of present and future climate variability on agriculture and forestry in the temperate regions: Europe. Climatic Change, 70(1-2), 117-135.
Murti, R., & Boydell, S. (2008). Land, conflict and community forestry in fiji. Management of Environmental Quality, 19(1), 6-19.
Ravindranath, N. H., Murthy, I. K., Sudha, P., Geetha, K. N., & Sangeetha, G. (2003). Assessment of afforestation and agro-forestry as potential CDM activities in semi-arid tumkur district, karnataka, india. Journal of Environmental Studies and Policy, 6(1), 45-60.
Sabitova, S. (2012). Implication of voluntary carbon markets for introducing CSR in the forestry sector of kazakhstan. Management of Environmental Quality, 23(6), 686-700.
Sakurai, T., Rayamajhi, S., Pokharel, R. K., & Otsuka, K. (2004). Efficiency of timber production in community and private forestry in nepal. Environment and Development Economics, 9(4), 539-561.
Salam, M. A., & Noguchi, T. (2005). On sustainable development of social forestry in Bangladesh: Experiences from sal (shorea robusta) forests. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 7(2), 209-227.
Shin, M. Y., Miah, M. D., & Lee, K. H. (2008). Mitigation options for the bangladesh forestry sector: Implications of the CDM. Climate Policy, 8(3), 243-260.
Urbel-Piirsalu, E., & Bäcklund, A. (2009). Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: The socioeconomic drivers. Ambio, 38(2), 101-8.
Yoshimura, T., & Acar, H. H. (2004). Occupational safety and health conditions of forestry workers in turkey. Journal of Forest Research, 9(3), 225-232.