The Mongols were a tribe of nomads from Central and North Asia who relied on nomadic lifestyle. The Mongols constantly depended on horses which were their only means of transportation from one place to another. Evidently, throughout history, the Mongols were in a fight with their neighbors. In this paper, there is more concentrate on breaking down the field of authentic written work on how Mongol Empire was ruled by extraordinary Mongol Khans both in a thirteenth and fourteenth century. It was the biggest Empire that ever existed in history as it united western and Asia. Mongol Empire first blooming occurs in the thirteenth century and meeting of tribes in 1206. This paper speaks more around an authentic audit about Mongol domain as it is identified with Islamic Civilisation.
How Biran related the Mongol Empire with Islamic Civilisation
To conquer his Islam neighbours, Genghis Khan used terror as a weapon of war. In case a city Genghis besieged a city, he could spare its citizens, but they will be under the Mongol control. However, if the city could make any attempts of fighting the Mongols, everyone in the city including the civilians could be massacred. The reign of terror is the main reason as to why he managed to conjure the Muslims who were very weak during that time. The Muslims were ready to give up than to suffer massacre at that time (Biran, 2013). Consequently, the Muslims were spared much of the Mongols wrath. Sparing the Muslim did not take long as in 1255 the Greta Khan named Mongke decided to put his brother Hulagu Khan in charge of the armies whose goal was to conjure Egypt, Syria and Persia. It was during this time that the army wanted to destroy anything attached to Islam. Muslim were not in any position to resist the Mongol attack and the Abbasid Caliphate was nothing bit a shell of its former self with no power outside Baghdad. The terror tactics employed for use by Ghengis Khan and Ogadei contributed to a massive expansion of the Mongol empire within a short period of time. The Mongol empire followed Islam despite fighting them Islams. The reason as to why the Mongols decided to follow the Islamic religion among other religions was due to the reason that it was a disparate religion.
According to Biran (2013), Chinggis Khan and his beneficiaries made the world biggest coterminous domain that extended from Korea to Hungary. The domain was named ‘Mongol’. The Chinggisids not just vanquished the entire Eurasian steppe and the home of the migrants. However, they additionally united under their principle three different civilisations. The Chinese’s came under their rule in 1279, when Islam had become part of the Mongols Religion. The religion of the Allah had never been defeated like the way Mongol was inflicting on them. Most of the crusaders the Mongols land had captured a few territories in Islamic land (Biran, 2013). However, much victory was evident as a result of lack of strong Muslim forces to counter the attacks. The Muslims learnt that they had to be much stronger to win the battle. Conversely, in the case with Khawarizm Shah the battle was not that strong as their attackers found some strong forces pulling them out. The attack was a big blow to the Islamic world and many writers through that the end of the world was near. The Muslim was severely attacked and many of them died in the battle. It was very strange that from the ashes of destruction, there rose the Islamisation of the entire Mongol empire outside China and Mongolia. The Islam was very strong and powerful after the attack that almost erased them from the face of the earth. No one could tell that Great Khan would make a big top-down decision that everyone was to convert to Muslim. Eventually 3 of the 4 Khanates that united to form Mongol Empire adopted Islam as their state religion (Biran, 2013). The process of adapting Islam to the states was more like a series of events that were taking place and were only partly related to each other. Evidently, Berke Khan was the first person who converted to Muslim. He was a grandson of Genghis Khan and the Khan of Golden Horde which formally had ruled parts of Russia and Caucasus. In addition, there is less evidence to confirm that the conversion of Berke to a Muslim was political. Berke tried to persuade his brother to convert to the Muslim religion, but it was not that easy as there was no widespread conversion of Mongol leadership in horde at such time. Brian assumed that Blue horde, White horde, Kipchuk Khanate and Golden Horde are all the same thing. Berke conversion had one big political consequence. The consequences that Berke had to endure are allying with a Muslim kingdom against a fellow Mongol Khan. Another grandson of Genghis named Hulagu Khan ruled Ilkhanate. Ilkhanate was the former Persian Khwarizm Empire. Hulagu Khan was mandated from the Great Khan and his brother (Mongke) was helped by Berke to make the Great Khan. The Mongke was now required to move to the south to subjugate the rest of the Islamic world (Biran, 2013). Through the effort they employed for use, they managed to destroy Baghdad together with the Abbasid Caliphate and killed the Caliph himself. It was a very pathetic act that was very brutally fashioned. However, Berke was a very devoted Muslim and was upset by the act that had taken place. However, in 1259, Mongke Khan died and Hulagu had to go back to Mongolia, where he decided to elect a new Great Khan. Back in Egypt, the Mamluks decided to destroy the Mongol army left in the country as Hulagu was not absent there. The army was killed in a famous battle that took place in Ain Jalut. It was in 1261 when Hulagu came back to Egypt only to be shocked that Berke had allied with the Mamluks. Immediately, Berke started instigating Hulagu till the war broke out between them in 1262. The war was named as Hulagu-Berke war leading to the halted Mong; expansion in the Middle East. After the war ended between a Muslim (Berke), and non-Muslim (Hulagu), Ghazan converted to Muslim in 1295. Ghazan was a descendant of Hulagu and saw it prudent to convert to a Muslim as the majority of his subjects were Muslim (Biran, 2013). One would say that Ghazan conversion to Muslim was instigated by political expediency. From this point onwards, the Ilkhanate was now a very strong Muslim. It meant that the Islam was now a very strong religion as a Horde had converted to Muslim. The conversion to Islam took the throne in 1313 and Islam was adopted as the state religion. It was clear that the Muslim had become civilised for they were now very strong as compared to previous times.
The Aspect of Mongol Empire in relation with Islamic Civilisation
Mongol Empire (2015) is an article that explains when Genghis let himself loose on the Khawarizm Empire in 1219, the event that followed after were very traumatising to the Islamic Word. It is during this time that the event which took place was made the world be referred as ‘holocaust’. The Genghis Mongols liked fighting a lot and many cities in the Eastern Islamic world were ravaged (Mongol Empire, 2015). It did not matter what kind of city which was there as a city like Samarkhand and Bukhara was one of the greatest religious Islamic cities, but they were also ravaged. The war led to the current five central Asian Republic. Additionally, Khanate had a ruler named Mubarak Shah, who converted to be an Islam in 1256. It was different as rulers would later renounce Islam go back to their old beliefs (Mongol Empire, 2015). In 1331, Tarmashirin Khan tried to take the Khanate back to Islam. However, he was killed for his effort of trying to do so. Soon after his death, Khanate collapsed and Timur took over his religion and he worked so hard to ensure that everybody converted to be a Muslim.
How Alamut related the Mongol Empire with Islamic Civilisation
After the capture of the Alamut, Hulegu decided to match towards grand prize of Baghdad to face Caliph; an important incompetent military commander during that time (Prawdin, 2006). However, Caliph learnt about what was going to happen and decide to prepare a siege, but Hulegu was already closing in. Upon his arrival, there were 20,000 cavalrymen who rode with courage to confront the Mongols. Evidently, the force was not successful in its entire plans as they were made inevitable. In addition, Baghdad held out for a week until breaching took place in the east. There was no any other option rather than the city surrendering its efforts due to the slaughtering that was ensued (Prawdin, 2006). All the treasures present were looted and magnificent mosques were destroyed and the population was heavily massacred. It was very interesting that all the Christians who were present in the city were spared. Research has proved that 800,000 men were killed even though the record of the number might have been a big exaggeration of what was perceived to happen (Prawdin, 2006).
How Khwarezmian Related the Mongol Empire with Islamic Civilisation
The Mongols finished the brief Khwarezmian Empire, and brought the fall of the Abbasid Caliph and managed an extraordinary hit to Islamic society. In spite of the fact that the Mongols did without a doubt bring a tremendous rundown of passing’s and devastation, the temperate boo that took after is clearly something not to be disregarded. The Mongols had a direct political situation of the world. It was during this time that China was united under a single ruler. The biggest city in the Middle East had already lost its glory as the Mongols managed to end the short-lived Kwarezmina Domain and conveyed a tumble to Abbasid Caliph. What’s more, an extraordinary hit to Islamic society was felt.
How Weatherford Related the Mongol Empire with Islamic Civilisation
Weatherford clarified that the Mongol were tolerated in the Mongol Empire as evident in most sponsors that took place at that time. In addition, there were very many converts from Buddhism to Christianity and from Manichaeanism to Islam. However, there was religion, freedom that was accorded to all citizens, though the leader was a Shamanist (Weatherford, 2004). All Muslim leaders were exempted from taxation and all public administration the whole empire. It was now evident that all the clerics had sought better tactic of drawing large audiences to better places of worship. Due to the spread of Muslim religion in Mongol, developments were now evident. Many building projects took place in Mongol Capital. Places of worship for the Muslims were built thus, they felt comfort conducting their religion. Later, it was evident where three of the four principal Khanates embraced Islam. In addition, Islam was more favoured compared to any other religion, in Mongol. However, there were other religions that were practised in The East of Mongol Empire like Shamanism and Buddhism, which were once dominant, but became weak when Islam dominated the country (Weatherford, 2004). It was clear that in the early days the rulers of both khanates adopted Buddhism, which was a resemblance if Yuan dynasty at that time. It did not take long for the Mongol rulers Ghazan of Ilkhanate and Uzbeg converted to Islam. Yuan dynasty was based in China and Mongolia, but it later became the only division of the Mongol Empire. Mongolia Empire did not embrace Islam, but favoured Tibetan Buddhism until the dynasty ended.
Analysis of Different Authors on Islamic Civilisation
Prawdin, (1940) dedicates a good portion of the book to explaining the Mongol’s emphasis with Islamic civilisation. Several examples are given, such as rulers going to the extent of buying unwanted goods exorbitantly just to keep Islamic civilisation up. He also explained the Mongol Empire not just at its prime but in the beginning as well. Prawdin exceptionally depicted the gradual transformation into a powerful and an expansive nation dedicated to cultural exchange towards taking part in Islamic civilisation. This helped put into perspective just how remarkable their reign actually was. On the other side, Jack Weatherford, (2005) discusses the structure and accomplishments of the Mongol Empire towards Islamic civilisation. He even insinuates that the Mongols had a large impact on the renaissance because of their influence in acquiring new knowledge, technology, sciences towards Islamic civilisation. Weatherford uses great analogies that aid in comprehending the complexity of the empire. One such analogy about the empire conquering territory the size of Africa all with around 100,000 soldiers, less the number of employees most corporations have. Weatherford also tackles the stereotype of the name Genghis Khan being associated with destruction and violence. Although they’re reign included some horrific occurrences, Khan was able to cultivate an empire that utilized global trade. Likewise, Jackson, (2004) addresses the relationship between the nomadic Mongols and the surrounding sedentary societies. The author discusses how the Mongols affected and were affected by the surrounding smaller societies like the Muslims. Their relationship operated hand in hand as the empire would instil authority over conquered territory and absorb the cultures that resided within that land. He also explained more of how Islamic civilisation took place. In addition, Serjeant (1951), attempted to trace the different types of Mongol currency to figure out where the money was traveling and impacting the Islamic Civilisation. This helped explain what merchants were trading and where they were trading. The fur trade was most popular in the Russian territories as they had little else appealing to trade. The trading that occurred in Mongol territory depicted a chain reaction to the Islamic civilisation. Areas where furs were common would trade and seek commodities that weren’t native to their area and vice versa.
This paper gives more focus on the analysis of the historical writing about the Mongol Empire and how it relates to historical review. In the olden days, the Islam’s were very weak; hence, the reason as to why they were easily attacked. It did not take long that they became very strong and became the leading religion in the Mongol empire. Various leaders of the Mongol empire had to convert to Muslim. The Muslims had changed from the way they used to handle most of their activities and employed the use of better ways, this implied that civilisation had taken place in the Islamic community.
Biran, M., (2013). The Mongol Empire in World History: The State of the Field. History Compass 11/11: 1021–1033
Jack Weatherford, (2005). Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. Crown Publishing Group.
Jackson, Peter. (2004). Mongols, Turks, and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World. Leiden: Brill Academic.
Mongol Empire. (2015). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1
Prawdin (2006). The Mongol Empire. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey
Prawdin, Michael. (1940). The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy. 2nd ed. Transaction Publishers.
Serjeant, R.B. (1951).“Material For a History of Islamic Textiles up to the Mongol Conquest.” Ars Islamica.