According to Rainey, there are two theories of motivation, content theory and process theories (274). Need achievement theory by McClelland involves the determination of ones effort to achieve success. It entails one using his cunning abilities to achieve success. Equity theory by Adams is also a content theory (Rainey 280). He argues that equity at workplace influence the behavior of workers. Rainey argues that a sense of inequity brings discomfort in the workplace (278). Salary difference in relation to work done is a major difference in workplace.
Process theories are mainly concerned to motivation at work place. They describe the goals, needs and rewards with respect to motivation. Among the process theories is the Expectancy theory (Rainey 283). According to this theory, an individual performs a task after reviewing it consequence. Actions with high probability of good outcomes receive high motivation. Social leaning theory by Albert Bandura is another process theory (Rainey 290). This theory gives much emphasis to forms of leaning and behavior change. According to this theory, people’s behavior is shaped by experiences (Rainey 290). Rainey argues that this theory is effective in developing leadership and self improvement (290).
Public Service Motivation concerns employees in the public sector. Most public servants place their values on work that help the society and benefit the society as a whole (267). They are divided into three categories. Norm based motives are driven by the good will to serve the general populace. Affective motive includes commitment to a duty based on a strong urge of its importance to the community. Instrumental motives is the involve adherence to a program based on convictions on its fulfillment of personal interest (Rainey 267). Rainey also notes that high levels of PSM is between is in individuals who are satisfied with their jobs (270). Public service motivation results into increased job satisfaction and commitment to the job (Rainey 273). This also leads to high productivity in work areas which results into increased profits.
The importance of job satisfaction is that it creates a positive feeling about the job (Rainey 298). Unsatisfied workers tend to have a negative attitude about everything about their job. Inadequate job satisfaction can lead to negative consequences in the job. Some of the approaches which can be used to address job satisfaction include enhancing the security and social needs of the employees (Rainey 299). Insecure employees are feeling unstable with their current job leading to low job satisfaction. Rainey also suggest that other methods of improving job satisfaction are by improving the salaries, promotion at workplace, well managed supervision encouraging work related groups and involving employees in management (301). Job satisfaction leads to improved performance and productivity by employees (Rainey 301). He also suggests that job satisfaction also reduces problems of absenteeism in workplaces by employees (301). Satisfied and happy workers perform better than their unsatisfied counterparts (Rainey 301).