Referencing and Plagiarism Lecture

Introduction: What is referencing?

What is referencing, and why should I do it?

As members of the University of  you are part of an academic community and as such it is essential that you make yourself familiar with the conventions of academic writing. Every member of the academic community, staff and student alike, is expected to follow these academic conventions in any piece of work they produce. In academic writing referencing is one of these conventions. Referencing is used to acknowledge the use of other people’s work and ideas in your own work. It also allows the reader to locate the information you have used, so you must identify these sources by including the following:

  1. Citation: quoting or paraphrasing sources in body of your text. This is often referred to as in-text citation. It usually provides brief information e.g. author, date and page numbers. See page 8 for more information.
  2. Reference list/Bibliography: an alphabetically list of the sources used in your work. Full details of the sources are given. See page 12 for more information.

Avoiding plagiarism

Plagiarism occurs when attempting to present another person’s work as your own. When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of someone else without referencing them, or use the exact words they have used and present them as your own argument, then this is considered plagiarism.

These can be written words or ideas, an artefact, musical composition, choreography, image or string of computer code etc…, depending on your programme of study. The term plagiarism is derived from the Latin Plagiarius, which means kidnapper. Plagiarism in written work can occur intentionally (e.g. you copy a section from a book without referencing it) or unintentionally (e.g. you paraphrase another person’s work or ideas but fail to acknowledge them as the source).
A lack of awareness of the rules of referencing is not an acceptable excuse for plagiarism so please double check all of your quotations and paraphrases and make sure every source is listed correctly in your bibliography/reference list.

Please note: just changing one or two words somewhere in the quotation does not mean it becomes your own work and you do not need to reference it. This is still a form of plagiarism.

The University of takes plagiarism very seriously. The following is taken from Section 5 of the Student Disciplinary Regulations:

  1. a) No student shall represent the work of another person as his or her own in any academic material submitted for assessment.
    b) No student shall contribute any work to another student with the knowledge that the latter may submit the work in part or whole as his or her own.

The university has a number of systems in place to assist in detecting plagiarism in student’s work including software, such as Turnitin. Turnitin provides an originality report each time a student submits an assignment. The report can be used to detect potential matches in an assignment submission with a wide range of online materials including websites and ebooks and other student’s work. The matches can then be checked by tutors to assess whether plagiarism has taken place.

Forms of plagiarism and collusion

  1. a)  Using sentences, parts of sentences, or larger pieces of text without attributing them. This includes cutting and pasting sections from websites.
  2. b)  Citing the name of an author but not making clear which words are the author’s and which are yours.
  3. c)  Mixing and matching parts of sentences to create new ones: if you use recognisable phrases that are not your own then you are plagiarising, unless the phrases need to be there to retain the meaning (e.g. jargon words from your discipline).
  4. d)  Using unattributed sentences with sporadic words changed.
  5. e)  Quoting inaccurately. Even if you cite the author and source and put the quote in

inverted commas if you do not reproduce a quote faithfully (word for word), then

you have plagiarised.

  1. f)  Failing to list all of the sources used in your essay in your bibliography or cited

works/reference list. All websites visited, radio/television programmes watched as well as books and journals read, should be included (see the section entitled Bibliographies or Cited Works/Reference List for more information).

  1. g)  Writing a piece of work with another student (unless this is group work).
  2. h)  Submitting a piece of work written in whole or in part by someone else.
  3. i)  Paying to have a piece of work written by someone else.
  4. j)  Resubmitting part of or a whole assignment you have previously submitted. Even if

this is your own work, the university considers this to be plagiarism as each piece of work you submit must be original.

 

Quoting very long passages (unless the point being made is particularly complex and needs an extensive quotation) is not exactly plagiarism but it is poor practice. does not accept any of the reasons below as excuses for plagiarism:

  1. a)  Lack of time/poor time management.
  2. b)  Not understanding the nature of plagiarism. First, if you do any of the things listed

above you have plagiarised. Second, if you are in any doubt consult your tutor

before submitting an essay: they will be happy to offer you advice.

  1. c)  Not being able to complete or not understanding a piece of work.
  2. d)  Muddled notes leading to confusion between original material and quotes.

Which referencing style do I use?

This information should be provided to you by your programme so make sure you have checked your module/programme handbook first. If it is still not clear which style you should be using the table below is provided for guidance but it is still advisable to check with your tutors before writing your first assignment.

Department Referencing Style
Business UR Harvard
Dance UR Harvard
Drama, Theatre and Performance UR Harvard
Education UR Harvard
English Literature & Creative Writing MLA
Humanities Humanities Referencing Guide, except for History students who should use the Chicago Style Guide.
Life Sciences UR Harvard
Media, Culture and Languages UR Harvard
Psychology APA and UR Harvard (Check your handbook)

http://blog.apastyle.org/

Social Sciences UR Harvard
Law OSCOLA – The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/research- subject-groups/publications/oscola

University of Harvard Referencing Style Guide

There is no universal Harvard Referencing style. Harvard referencing is an adaptable style used by many universities across the world; therefore you can potentially access a number of different Harvard guides online. At the University of we recommend you use the style in this guide only.

Some departments in the university may have their own variations to this guide, e.g. Humanities. Always check with your department, programme or module guides for further clarification.

 

Section 1: Citations

Types of citations: Paraphrasing

When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of anyone other than yourself in your assignment and put them into your own words, this is called paraphrasing. Paraphrasing can be used in a number of situations in your essays:

  • You might be referring to a school of thought.
    · You might be summarising a chapter or a whole book. · You might be summarising an idea.
    · You might be rewriting a few sentences.

Whenever you paraphrase, you will need to acknowledge the source you originally obtained the information from. If you do not include an acknowledgement or it is incorrectly, then this is plagiarism.

Types of citations: Quoting

You might be more familiar with this element of referencing. When you include the exact words of someone else’s work in your essay you are quoting. You must indicate that the words you are using are not your own. To do this, use ‘single inverted commas’ around the words you are quoting (“speech marks” are usually used for quoting direct speech). Some departments have their own preference, so always check for further clarification.

How to set out citations in your text

With each quotation or paraphrase that appears in your assignments there must be some acknowledgement of where that information came from. In academic writing we call this acknowledgement ‘a citation’. The form the citation takes will vary depending on the type of referencing style you are using. In the Harvard referencing style, for example, we use an in-text citation i.e. the citation appears within the sentences and paragraphs of your assignment. This citation is a brief summary of the source used, noting the author’s surname and/or a date/page number depending on the style you are using, surrounded by round brackets (parentheses).

The standard format for in-text citation is as follows:

  • ·  If you are quoting, use the following layout: (Author, Date: Page)

e.g. (Smith, 2003:12).

  • ·  If you are paraphrasing, use the following layout: (Author, Date). Unless specified

by your tutor, there is no need to include a page number, e.g. (Smith, 2003).

When quoting from sources within your text, use the following conventions:

  • ·  Keep quotations brief.
  • ·  If quoting short text word-for-word within a sentence, enclose the quotation in

‘single inverted commas’ e.g.:
In Smith (1985:150) the author states that ‘……..’ One author states that ‘………’ (Smith, 1985:150)

  • ·  If quoting longer text (50 words or more) word for word, set out the quotation in a new paragraph with no quotation marks. Indent the quote on the left-hand side and use single spacing between the lines, e.g.

Conjunctions have the semantic role of indicating in which way the new information links to the previous sentence. It may be additional (additive), conflicting (adversative), explanatory (causal) or simply the next thing that is to be said on the subject (continuative).

(Smith, 1985:150)

The citation can come at the beginning or at the end of the sentence containing the quotation or paraphrase. For readability, there is no need to repeat the author’s name if you have already mentioned it in the sentence, you can just cite the date and the page number/s in brackets.

Punctuation and Quotations

It is very important that you do not forget to punctuate your sentences when you are quoting or paraphrasing. The simplest way to make sure you have punctuated your sentence correctly is to remember that the punctuation within the quotation does not count towards the punctuation in the sentence. The full stop must always be placed on the outside of the last bracket, e.g.

  • ·  Correct: Smith (2008:43) argues that ‘it is essential to punctuate your sentences correctly’.
  • ·  Incorrect: Smith (2008:43) argues that ‘it is essential to punctuate your sentences correctly.’

Example paragraph with in-text citations

Acker (2006), however, argues that all work organizations have ‘inequality regimes’ that are fluid and reflect patterns of inequality in the surrounding society, but they are not always visible to all members. While the culture of early education is clearly gendered and feminized, Williams (1992) notes that white men teachers experience a ‘glass escalator’, elevated into higher positions such as administration. The same does not hold true for black men, who experience a ‘glass barrier’ in feminized occupations, and are often met with hostility and racism from patients and coworkers (Wingfield, 2009). In many cases, black male nurses were exposed to frontstage race behaviors (Picca and Feagin, 2007). These studies demonstrate that racial and gender privilege in professional occupations is fluid and varies depending on the organization, even if individuals perform similar duties.

Turnitin

Most modules at the university now require you to submit your work to a Turnitin assignment inbox via Moodle. Turnitin provides an originality report when you submit your assignment. The report can be used to find instances of matched text across a wide range of online materials including journals, ebooks and websites as well as student submissions from other Universities including

Turnitin is only a tool and as a student, you should carefully look through the report and ensure that any highlighted segments are correctly cited and referenced, whatever the similarity score (a high similarity score does not mean that plagiarism has occurred and a low score does not mean it has not occurred). All the report is showing is that similar text has been found elsewhere. If you are unsure, then consult your tutor, an Academic Achievement Adviser or a Subject Librarian. You can find more advice about Turnitin as well as a test submission area via the Turnitin Test Site which is available in your Moodle module list.

 

Examples of in-text citation: single author

Short quotation without author’s name in sentence It has been said that ‘all children learn through play’ (Smith, 2003:62).
Short quotation with author’s name in sentence Smith (2003:62) believes that ‘all children learn through play’
Long quotation without author’s name in sentence Play is an important part of children’s development:

I have never known a playgroup in which children fail to thrive. There can be no doubt that all children learn through play.

(Smith, 2003:62)

Long quotation with author’s name in sentence Play is an important part of children’s development, according to Smith (2003:62):

I have never known a playgroup in which children fail to thrive. There can be no doubt that all children learn through play.

Paraphrase without author’s name in sentence It is commonly believed that learning through play is an activity that helps children learn (Smith, 2003).
Paraphrase with author’s name in sentence Smith (2003) believes that learning through play is an activity that helps children learn.

Examples of in-text citation: two authors

Display the surnames and initials of both authors in your text, e.g. (Pears & Shields, 2008) or Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2008)

Examples of in-text citations: three or more authors

You only need to list the surname of the first author followed by the words ‘et al.’, e.g. (Mabey et al., 1998:50).
However, in bibliography/reference list you must acknowledge every author, e.g. Mabey, C. Salaman, G., & Storey, J. (1998) Strategic human resource management: a reader. London: Sage.

 

Section 2: Bibliography or Cited Works/Reference List

In-text citations are just a quick summary of which source you have used. A bibliography or cited works list provides full details of each source you have used in your essay in alphabetical order. The details you need to provide will vary depending on the type of sources you have used, but may include information such as the place of publication and publisher, the full web address, the original broadcast date and the date the source was accessed. Full details of how to cite each type of source in your bibliography can be found in this section.

Please note that some tutors will ask you to produce bibliography, while other tutors will ask for cited works/reference list. The difference is:

  • ·  Bibliography: a list of all of the sources you have looked at to help you compile the essay even if you have not made direct mention to them in the text. This can include sources you have read but not actually quoted from or paraphrased in your work.
  • ·  Cited works /reference list: a list only includes sources you have directly quoted or paraphrased in your work.

If you are unsure which type of list your tutor is expecting, it is a good idea to double check with them before you begin writing your essay.

Your bibliography or cited works/reference list should be laid out as neatly as possible so it is easy for your tutor to find the full details of each source you are referring to. Choose a clear font in an easy to read size (at least size 12). Space out each entry with a line in between each one and alphabetise the list from A-Z (some tutors may require you to arrange your references into separate sections, e.g. putting all websites at the end, or separating children’s books from the rest of the list, so it is important to confirm with your tutor what they require before you compile your list).

 

Example reference list:

Ball, C. & Gettinger, M. (2009) Monitoring children’s growth in early literacy skills. Education & Treatment of Children. 32(3) pp.189-212. Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 15/06/09).

Butroyd, R.(2008) Relationships with children and young people. In: Denby, N. (ed.) How to Achieve your QTS: A Guide for Students. London: Sage. pp.25-46.

Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000. Elizabeth II. (Chapter 16) London: The Stationery Office.

Cooper, H. (2002) History in the Early Years. (2nd ed.) London: Routledge. McGoldrick, T. (2007) Email to Joyce Millan. 7th September.

NSPCC (2009) Signs of Safety® in England. Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/research/findings/signs-of-safety-pdf_wdf94939.pdf (Accessed: 14/08/14).

Shakespeare, W. (1967) All’s Well that Ends Well. Edited by Edwards, P. London: Routledge.

Should I eat meat? How to feed the planet. Horizon. [Television programme]. Directed by Lachmann, M. UK: BBC2. Broadcast: 20/08/14. 60mins.

Note: where there is no author/editor/corporate author etc. the entry is listed by title of the work and ordered alphabetically within the list.

 

Formatting references for different resource types Books & ebooks

Book with one author

Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Cooper, H. (2002) History in the Early Years. (2nd ed.) London: Routledge.

Book with two authors

Author & Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Chazan, M. & Laing A. F. (1982) Children with Special Needs. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Book with more than two authors

Author, Author & Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Goodman, S., Lillis, T., Maybin J. & Mercer, N. (2003) Language, Literacy and Education: A Reader. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.

Book with editor

Editor (ed.) (Year) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Atkinson, D. (ed.) (1989) The Children’s Bookroom: Reading and the Use of Books. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books .

Chapter in edited book

Author (Year) Title of chapter. In: Editor (ed.) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher. Pages.

Example: Butroyd, R.(2008) Relationships with children and young people. In: Denby, N. (ed.) How to Achieve your QTS: A Guide for Students. London: Sage. pp.25-46.
In-text citation: Use the author of the chapter, e.g. (Butroyd, 2008)

 

Electronic book (ebook)

Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher. Available at: URL (date Accessed).

Example: Broadhead, P., Meleady, C. & Delgardo, M.A. (2008) Children, Families and Communities: Creating and Sustaining Integrated Services. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Available at: http://www.dawsonera.com (Accessed: 12/06/09).

Ebook on reader, Kindle, Sony ebook

Author (Year of ebook publication) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) [Name of ebook reader] Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Mills, P. (2007) The Routledge Creative Writing Coursebook. [Kindle edition] Oxon: Taylor & Francis.

Note: Page numbering on ebooks may vary from the hardcopy or be absent altogether. Instead, use section numbers or section titles, where available, to indicate the location of any quotations, e.g. (Mills, 2007, Section 1.1).

Book revised and updated by a different author

Original author (Original Date) Title of Book. (Edition – if not first edition.) Revised and updated by Name of author who has updated the work (Date of revised edition) Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Docking, J. W. (1996) Managing Behaviour in the Primary School. (3rd ed.) Revised and updated by MacGrath, M. (2002) London: David Fulton.

Book republished with a different title

Author (Year) Current Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher (Originally published as: Original Title of Book. First published: Date).

Example: Horowitz, A. (2003) Return to Groosham Grange, London: Walker Books (Originally published as: The Unholy Grail. First published: 1999).

 

Religious texts

Editor (ed.)(Year) The Bible/Qur’an/Koran/Torah: edition in italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Carrol, R. & Prickett S. (eds.) (1997) The Bible: Authorised King James Version with Apocrypha. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In-text citation: include the book, chapter and verse(s), e.g.
Ecclesiastes 2:4) – this refers to Ecclesiastes chapter 2, verse 4.

(1 Corinthians 15:55-57) – this refers to St Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians, Chapter 12, verses 55-57.

Dictionaries/encyclopaedias, individual entry

Author (Year) Title of Entry. In: Title of the Book. (Volume). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Oitzl, M. S., (2007) Avoidance. In: Encyclopaedia of Stress. (Vol.1).Boston: Academic Press.
In-text citation: use the author of entry, e.g. (Oitzl, 2007)

 

Literary Works

Reprints of Literary Works

Author (Date of reprint). Title of Work. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: Austin, J. (1975) Pride and Prejudice. London: Folio.
In-text citation: If you did not read the original edition, then you may refer to the original year of publication in your own text, e.g.
Pride and Prejudice (Austin, 1975), published 1813, is a very thought provoking novel.

Poem/play within an anthology

Author (Year) Title of individual play/short story/poem. In: Editor (ed.) Title of Anthology (Edition -if not first edition). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Nagy, P. (1994) Weldon Rising. In: Castledine, A. (ed.) Plays by Women: Volume Ten. London: Methuen Drama.
In-text citation: Use the author of poem/play, e.g. (Nagy, 1994)

Edited play

Author (Year of edited text) Title of Play. Edited by Editor (ed.) Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Shakespeare, W. (1967) All’s Well that Ends Well. Edited by Edwards, P. London: Routledge.
In-text citation: Use the author of play, e.g. (Shakespeare, 1967)

The Classics

Author, Title of Work in English. Translated by Translator. (Date of Translation) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Homer, The Iliad. Translated by Fagles, R. (1990) London: Penguin. In-text citation: Use the original author, e.g. (Homer, 1990)

 

For literary works you must italicise the name of the work when referencing to it in- text, e.g. Pride and Prejudice (Austin, 1813), is a very thought provoking novel.

Foreign language works

Translated work

Author (Year of translated version [Year of original work]) Title of Book. Translated by Translator. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Piaget, J. (2001 [1926]) The Language and Thought of the Child. Translated by Gabain, M. & Gabain, R. London: Routledge Classics.
In-text citation: use name of the author, e.g.(Piaget, 2001)

Works in other languages

Author (Year) Title in original language [English translation of title, if required]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Esquivel, L. (2003) Como Agua Para Chocolate [Like Water for Chocolate]. Barcelona: Debolsillo.

Works in other alphabets

Transliterate (not translate) the details into the English alphabet.
Example: use reference with English alphabet.
鷲田清一. (2007) 京都の平熱 : 哲学者の都市案内. 東京: 講談社.
Washida, K. (2007) Kyōto no heinetsu: tetsugakusha no toshi annai. Tōkyō: Kōdansha.

Works in dual languages

Editor (eds.) (Year) Title in English: Title in Other Language. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Lawaetz, G. (ed.) (1972) Spanish Short Stories 2: Cuentos Hispanicos 2. London: Penguin.

 

Journals, magazines & newspapers

Article from print journal

Author (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume(Issue) Pages. Example: Frostag, P. & Pijl, S.J. (2007) Does being friendly help in making friends? European Journal of Special Needs Education. 20(1) pp.15-30.

Article from electronic journal

Author (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume(Issue) Pages. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: Ball, C. & Gettinger, M. (2009) Monitoring children’s growth in early literacy skills. Education & Treatment of Children. 32(3) pp.189-212. Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 15/06/09).

Article from online journal with DOI

Author (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume(Issue) Pages. DOI Example: Levy, F.J., Ranjbar, A. & Dean, C.H. (2006) Dance movement as a way to help children affected by war. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 77(5) pp.6- 12. DOI: 10.1080/07303084.2006.10597870.

Article from newspaper or magazine

Author (Day, Month, Year) Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Pages.
Example: Curtis, P. (15th June, 2009) Tory plan to end primary school Sats and have new test at secondaries branded ‘half-baked’. The Guardian. pp.6-7.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

 

Thesis, conference proceedings, presentations & lecture materials

Thesis/Masters Dissertation, online

Author (Year) Title of Work. Type of Thesis. Name of Institution. Available at: (Accessed dd/mm/yy).

Example: Petridis, P. (2010) Notes at the Edge of Landscape. PHD Thesis. University of Sunderland. Available at: http://sure.sunderland.ac.uk/3309/ (Accessed:12/08/14).

Conference Proceedings, individual paper

Author (Year) Title of paper. In: Editor/Organisation. Title of Conference Proceeding. Place of Publication: Publisher. Pages.

Example: McKie, A. (2008) Mapping the territory. In: Making Connections – Bringing Together Research on E-Learning. London: University of Middlesex. pp.10-14.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Presentations

Author (Year) Title of Presentation. Presented at: Name of conference, Location of conference.

Example: Hayes, D. (2009) From Flagellation to Therapy: What are Students Learning Today?. Presented at: ALDinHE Conference, Bournemouth University.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Lecture/module materials

Lecturer (Year) Title of Lecture [Medium type for Module code]. Date. Name of Organisation (Accessed dd/mm/yy).

Example: Riley, M. (2013) Surveillance and Social Control [PowerPoint presentation for PHT020C105A]. 13th October 2013. University of

(Accessed 09/07/04).

 

Webpages and Social Media

Website

Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Webpage. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (2009) Signs of Safety® in England. Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/research/findings/signs-of-safety (Accessed: 14/08/14).

Wiki/Wikipedia

Title of wiki (Year last updated) Title of Article. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: Wikipedia (2014) Business Ethics. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_ethics (Accessed: 20/06/11).

Blog

Author (Year last updated) Title of post. Title of Website. Day Month. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Yale Law Library (2010) The two faces of American freedom. Yale Law Library – Reference Blog. 10th December. Available at: http://blogs.law.yale.edu/blogs/reference/ (Accessed: 20/06/11).

Facebook

Author (Year) Title of Page [Facebook].Day Month posted. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: University of

(2013) Postgraduate [Facebook]. 19th August 2013. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/Postgraduate (Accessed: 20/08/13).

Twitter

Title of twitter page (twitter user name) (Year) Full Text of Tweet [Twitter]. Date of tweet. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: MCL (@MCL_) (2014) Deborah Jermyn of MCL @Uni Writes About True Detective – Will The Show Deliver on the Hype? [Twitter]. 18 March. Available at: https://twitter.com/MCL_ (Accessed: 20/08/14).

 

Government publications, Acts, papers & reports

UK Statutes (Acts of Parliament)

Country. Full Name of Act. Name of sovereign. (Chapter number) Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Great Britain. Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000. Elizabeth II. (Chapter 16) London: The Stationery Office.
In-text citation: add the name of the Country and Name of Act), e.g. (Great Britain. Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000)

Command Papers (White & Green Papers)

Country. Name of Committee or Royal Commission (Year) Title of Paper. Paper number. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Great Britain. The Royal Commission on Criminal Justice (1993) Report of the Royal Commission on Criminal Justice. CM2263, London: Stationery Office.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
In-text citation: add the name of the Country and Name of Committee/Royal Comission), e.g. (Great Britain. Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000)

Government publications

Country. Department (Year) Title of Report. Place of Publication: Publisher. Example: Great Britain. Office for National Statistics (2015) Focus on property crime, 2014 to 2015. Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_425348.pdf (Accessed: 08/12/15)
In-text citation: add the name of the Country and Name of Department, e.g. (Great Britain. Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000)

 

Reports from other organisations

Publications of international organisations

Name of organisation or institution (Year) Title of Report. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: United Nations (2015) Human Development Report 2015. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
In-text citation: use name of Organisation, e.g. (United Nations, 2015)

Research report

Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Report. Place of Publication: Publisher. Example: McLellan R, Galton M & Walberg M (2015) The Impact of Arts Interventions on Health Outcomes – A survey of young adolescents accompanied by a review of the literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, Faculty of Education.

If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Ofsted report

Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Document and Dates Inspection Took Place. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Ofsted (2010) Rye Oak School Inspection Report 13-14th May 2010. London: H.M.S.O.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Company Annual Report

Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Annual Report. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Teaching Development Agency (2009) Annual Report and Account 2008-09. London: HMSO.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

 

British Standards

British Standards Institute, (Year ) Number and Title of Standard. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: British Standards Institute (2008) BS EN ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems Requirements. London: British Standards Institute.
In-text citation: use full name, e.g. (British Standards Institute, 2008).

Book Reviews

Author of the review (Year) Title of the Book Being Reviewed. By Author of book. Reviewed in: Title of journal. Volume(Issue) Pages.

Example: Publisher’s Weekly (2003) Beegu. By Deacon, A. Reviewed in: Publisher’s Weekly. 250(36) pp.74-75.
In-text citation: use the author of review (Publisher’s Weekly,2003)
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Archive materials

The majority of materials found in archives, that are not books, are housed in some sort of container and within the container the various items are separated in files. Archival references should include the following information (where available):
Creator/Author. Title of Document. Page, Section, Date (if available). Box/File Number. Name of Collection. Name of Repository. Name of Institution.
Example: Collingwood, M. Margot Fonteyn scrapbook. No.1., c. 1949. Box 1. MC 1/3. Monica Collingwood Collection. Archives and Special Collections. University of.

 

Visual sources

Diagrams, tables and illustrations

Author of book (Year) Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page reference of item [type of item e.g. illus./fig./table].

Example: Jefferies, L. (1996) Discovering Language: The Structure of Modern English. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. p.56 [Table].
In-text citation:

  • ·  replicate the whole diagram/table/illus.
  • ·  add a citation below the diagram/table/illus.
  • ·  if the diagram/table/illus. is from different source than the book that you found it

in, treat the citation as a secondary reference, e.g

(Econsumer.gov, 2011 cited in Sloman, et al., 2013:91)

Paintings/drawings in gallery

Artist (Year) Title of Work of Art [Type of Work]. City/Country painting is displayed: Museum painting is displayed in.

Example: Mucha, A.M. (1911) Princess Hyacinth [Painting]. Prague: Mucha Museum. In-text citation: use name of Artist, e.g. (Mucha, 1911)

 

Paintings/drawings seen online

Artist (Year) Title of Work of Art [Type of Work]. Name of Collection. Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Monet, C. (1899) Bridge over a Pool of Waterlilies [oil on canvas]. Grove Art Online. Available at: http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/img/grove/art/F020082 (Accessed: 27/04/16).

Photography, personal collection

Photographer (Year) Title of Photo [Photograph]. Unpublished Personal Photograph.

Example: Stowar, J. (2012) London Parks [Photograph]. Unpublished Personal Photograph. In-text citation: use name of Photographer, e.g. (Stowar, 2012)
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Photography, online

Photographer (Year) Title of Photo, Name of Collection [Photograph]. Available at: URL (Accessed:dd/mm/yy).

Example: Stowar, J. (2012) London Parks, Flickr [Photograph]. Available at: www.flickr.com/londonphotographs2012 (Accessed:10/04/12).
In-text citation: use name of Photographer, e.g. (Stowar, 2012)

Posters & Pamphlets

Corporate Author (Year) Title of Poster [Poster/Pamphlet]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: University (2011) Be a Student Mentor [Poster]. London: University.
In-text citation: use name of Corporate Author, e.g. (University, 2011)

Ordnance Survey Maps

Corporate Author (Year) Title of Map. Scale, Series Title and/or number. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Ordnance Survey (2006) East London. 1:50 000,177. London: H.M.S.O. In-text citation: use name of Corporate Author, e.g.(Ordnance Survey, 2006)

 

Audio-visual

Film, viewed at cinema/DVD

Title of Film (Year of distribution) Directed by Name of Director [Motion Picture/Motion Picture, DVD]. Place of Production: Production company.

Cinema example: The Caretaker (1963) Directed by Clive Donner [Motion Picture]. London: BFI Films.
DVD example: Educating Rita (1983) Directed by Lewis Gilbert [Motion Picture, DVD]. London: Rank Organisation.

In-text citation: use title of Film, e.g. (Educating Rita, 1983)

Film, viewed online

Title of Film (Year of distribution) Directed by Name of Director [Film, online]. Place of Production: Production company. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Monsters Inc. (2001) Directed by Pete Doctor, David Silverman & Lee Unkrich [Motion Picture, online]. Emeryville, CA.: Walt Disney & Pixar. Available at: http://bobnational.net/record/116126 (Accessed: 11/08/14).

In-text citation: use title of Film, e.g. (Monsters Inc., 2001)

Television programme/series

Title of Programme/Series. (Year of broadcast) [Television programme]. Directed/Produced by Director/Producer. Country: Name of broadcaster. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Example: Horizon. [Television programme]. Directed by Michael Lachmann. UK: BBC2. Broadcast: 20/08/14. 60mins.

In-text citation: use title of Programme/Series, e.g. (Horizon, 2014)

Extract from a television programme

Name of episode. Title of Series. (Year of broadcast) [Television programme, extract]. Directed/Produced by Director/Producer. Country: Name of broadcaster. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration. Start – end timings of extract.
Example: Should I eat meat? How to feed the planet. Horizon. [Television programme, extract]. Directed by Michael Lachmann. UK: BBC2. Broadcast: 20/08/14. 60mins.00:03:51-00:06:28.

 

Episode from a TV series, viewed on TV/DVD/online

Title/number of episode. Title of Series. Series number (Year of broadcast) [Television programme/Television programme, DVD]. Directed/Produced by Director/Producer. Country: Name of broadcaster. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration.

Television example: Community service. Shameless. Series 1 (2004) [Television programme]. Produced by Paul Abbott. UK: Channel 4. Broadcast: 13/01/04. 60mins. DVD example: Community service. Shameless. Series 1 (2004) [Television programme, DVD]. Produced by Paul Abbott. UK: Channel 4. 60mins.
If online use: [Television programme, online] and Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
In-text citation: use title of Episode, e.g. (Community Service, 2004)

Radio programmes

Title of Programme (Year of broadcast) [Radio programme]. Directed/Produced by Director/Producer. Name of Radio station. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration.

Example: Woman’s Hour (2011) [Radio programme].Produced by Kat Wong. BBC Radio 4. Broadcast: 20/06/11. Duration: 58mins.
If online use: [Radio programme, online] and Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy). In-text citation: use title of Programme, e.g. (Woman’s Hour, 2004)

Interview, Broadcast

Name of person being interviewed (Year) Interviewed by Name of Interviewer. Title of Programme. Place of Production: Production. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Example: Thatcher, M. (1983) Interviewed by Brian Walden. Weekend World. Broadcast: 16/01/1983. 45mins.

Audio, CD

Artist (Year of Production) Title of Album [CD]. Place of Distribution: Distribution Company.

Example: Madonna (2005) Confessions on a Dancefloor [CD]. USA: Maverick. In-text citation: use name of Artist, e.g.(Madonna, 2005)

 

Audio, track from CD

Artist (Year of Production) Title of track. Title of Album [CD]. Place of Distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Madonna (2005) I love New York. Confessions on a Dancefloor [CD]. USA: Maverick.
In-text citation: use name of Artist, e.g. (Madonna, 2005)

Song lyrics

Lyricist (Year of distribution) Title of Song. Place of Distribution: Distribution Company.

Example: John, E. (1972) Tiny Dancer. US: UNI. In-text citation: use name of Artist, e.g.(John, 2005)

Classical recording

Composer (Year of performance) Full Title of Recording. Performed by Name of Performer. Conducted by Name of Conductor [Format]. Place of Distribution: Record Company.
Example: Elgar (2010) Violin Concert: Violin Concerto/ Polonia/ Interlude From The Crown Of India. Performed by Tasmin Little. Conducted by: Andrew Davis. [CD]. UK: Chandos.

In-text citation: use name of Artist, e.g.(Elgar, 2010)

Music score

Composer (Year) Full Title of Score. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Debussy (1968) Images, 2e Série: Piano Solo. London: Wise Publications Ltd. In-text citation: use name of Artist, e.g.(Debussy, 1968)

Audio download

Artist (Year of Production) Title of Album [Audio download]. Available at: URL (date Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: Madonna (2005) Confessions on a Dancefloor [Audio download]. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B01F3FJF2/ref=dm_dp_trk5 (Accessed: 20/06/11). In-text citation: use name of Artist, e.g. (Madonna, 2005)

 

Youtube

Name of person posting video (Year video added) Title of Video [YouTube]. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: TED (2012) Susan Cain: The Power of Introverts [YouTube]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0KYU2j0TM4 (Accessed: 07/07/14).
In-text citation: use name of person posting the video, e.g. (TED, 2012)

Podcast

Name of Author/Presenter (Year published/last updated) Title of Podcast [Podcast]. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Example: Easter, M. (2009) We Need to Publicise Sport to Disabled Children [Podcast]. Available at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/audio/ (Accessed: 11/06/09).

Audiobook

Author/Artist (Year) Title of Audiobook [Audiobook]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Potter, S. (2001) Macbeth: Student SmartPass Edition Audio Education Study Guide [Audiobook]. Brighton: Smart Pass Ltd.

 

Live performances

Play

Author (Year of performance) Title of Work. Directed by Name of Director. Performed by Name of Actor/Company name. [Location: Venue]. Date of performance: Day Month.
Example: Shakespeare, W. (2011) A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Directed by Mark Leipacher. Performed by Faction Theatre Company [London, Brockwell Park]. 30th June. In-text citation: use name of Author, e.g.(Shakespeare, 2011)

Classical Music

Composer (Year of performance) Title of Performance. Conducted by Name of Conductor. Performed by Music Performers [Location: Venue]. Day Month. Example: Williams, V. (2010) Suite for Viola and Small Orchestra. Conducted by Jiří Bělohlávek. Performed by BBC Symphony Orchestra. [London: Royal Albert Hall]. 10th September.

In-text citation: use name of Composer, e.g.(Williams, 2010)

Dance

Choreographer (Year of performance) Title of Dance. Composed by Name of Composer. Performed by Name of Dance Company [Location: Venue]. Day Month.

Example: Makarova, N. (1993) Swan Lake. Composed by Peter Tchaikovsky. Performed by London Festival Ballet [London: Royal Festival Hall]. 2nd January.
In-text citation: use name of Choreographer, e.g.(Makarova, 1993)

Programme notes

Author (Year) Title of Performance [programme note]. Location: Venue. Day Month.
Example:
Decouflé, P. (2012) Panorama [Programme notes]. London: Sadler’s Wells Theatre. 2nd-4th November.

If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

 

Public communications

Press release

Author/organisation (Year) Title of Press Release [Press release]. Place of Publication: Company.

Example: TFL Press Office (2011) Oyster Pay as You Go Confirmed as the Ticket of Choice for Millions of National Rail Commuters in London. [Press release]. London: TFL.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Television advertisement

Name of Company/Product (Year produced) Title/Description of Advert [Television advertisement] Place of Production: Production company. Broadcast:dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Example: Cadbury Schweppes (2007) Gorilla [Television advertisement]. London: Blink Productions. Broadcast: 31/08/07. 1min 32sec.

In-text citation: use name of Company/Product, e.g. (Cadbury Schweppes, 2007)

Personal communications

Emails/text messages/faxes

Sender/Author (Year) Email/Text/Fax to Recipient. Day Month. Example: McGoldrick, T. (2007) Email to Joyce Millan. 7th September.

Interviews, in person

Name of person being interviewed (Year) Interviewed by: Name of Interviewer. Day Month.

Example: Allen, M. (2013) Interviewed by Celada, S. 15th April.
In-text citation: use the name of the person being interviewed, e.g. (Allen, 2013)

 

Section 3: Common citing and referencing issues

Multiple authors and ‘et al.’

If you have used ‘et al.’ in your text for multiple authors, you must always list all the authors names in full in the bibliography.
In-text example: (Smith et al., 2014)
Bibliography example: Smith, R., Jones, B., Brown, T. & Williams, M. (2014)

No author

Some sources do not have a clear author. Sometimes these sources will have a corporate author, e.g. company/government name, which you can use as the author of the source. Example: United Nations (2015) Human Development Report 2015. New York: United Nations Development Programme.

If there is no author or corporate author, you must always question whether the source is reliable enough to use, especially for academic work. Why does no one want to claim this work as their own? You might want to find the information from another source instead. If you do want to reference a source without a clear author, replace the author with the Title of the Work, followed by the (Year).

Example: How to be a Famous Author (2011). Available at: www.howtobefamous.com (Accessed: 01/04/14).

Referencing multiple sources by the same author

When using different sources by the same author arrange the references by the year of publication, beginning with the oldest. If some of the sources are published in the same year, use letters after the publication year to distinguish between them
Bibliography example:

Crystal, D. (2007a) By Hook or by Crook: a Journey in Search of English. London: HarperPress.
Crystal, D. (2007b) How Language Works: how babies babble, words change meaning, and languages live or die. New York: HarperPress.
Crystal, D. (2009) The future of Language. London: Routledge.
In-text citation example:
You can also use (year, letter) to differentiate between sources from the same author within the same year in your text too.

 

Referencing multiple pages from the same author

When referring to different pages from the same text in your work, just change the page numbers in your citations accordingly. You only need to list the text in your bibliography once, no matter how many times you’ve referred to it.
In-text citation example:

“75 percent of English spelling is regular but 25 percent is complicated” (Crystal, 2007:85)….. “Texting is far more immediate, direct and personal than alternative methods of electronic communications” (Crystal, 2007:42).

No date

If no date of publication, or last updated, date exists, use (no date) instead.
Book example: Smith, J. (no date) What Year is it? – A Guide for the Confused. London: Penguin.
Online example: Royal Dutch Shell (no date) More and Cleaner Energy. Available from: http://www.shell.com/energy-and-innovation/the-energy-future/more-and-cleaner- energy.html (Accessed: 14/04/2016).

Reprint, copyright or published date

Some books will list several dates within the book. Unless you need to specify that the work is a reprint, see ‘Reprints of Literary works’, pp.17, always use the last published date (most recent) in your reference. If this is absent use the last copyright date.

Published, printed or produced by

Many books will have details of the publisher and the printer/producer of the book. Always include the name of the Publisher in your reference list.

Multiple places of publication

Popular books may be published in several locations, e.g. Paris, New York, London. Always use the first location listed.

 

Referencing confidential material

If you need to reference confidential material and need to protect the identity of a person, organisation, publication, etc. you must anonymise the relevant information. Use square brackets to identify anonymised information.
In-text citation example:
Discussions of the report highlighted a lack of policy [School X, 2011]
Bibliography example:
[Anonymised body] (Year) Anonymised Title (Use square brackets for any part of the title that is anonymised). Location: [Anonymised publisher].

[School X] (2015) Safeguarding in the EYFS: [Name of school]. London: Department of Education.

Citing a source within another source: secondary referencing

Citing a source that is mentioned or quoted in a work that you are reading is called secondary referencing (second-hand referencing). Always try to read the original source if possible so that you understand the original source in context, rather than another author’s personal interpretation of it.
If you cannot access the original source you can include the secondary reference as a citation in your work. You should cite both sources and use the phrase ‘cited in’, in your text. In the bibliography you only reference the source you read it in.
In-text citation example:
‘Many of the parents appeared entirely indifferent to the child’s success either in school or even in later life’ (Burt, 1975, cited in Pringle, 1986:96).
Bibliography example:
Pringle, M.K. (1986) The Needs of Children. (3rd ed.) London: Routledge.